Low Resistivity (Heavily Doped) Wafers
Low resistivity wafers are wafers that are heavily doped. They have a low resistance to flow of electrical current, and are used for their highly conductive properties. These wafers can be charged positively (P-type) or negatively (N-type). P-type wafers are doped with boron and have positively charged atoms within them that carry current through the wafer. N-type wafers are negatively charged and use electrons to carry electricity through the wafer. These wafers can be doped with phosphorus, arsenic or antimony to get their negative charge.
Most wafers are doped during the fabrication process. Others, like intrinsic wafers, are introduced to the dopant after fabrication. There are a few techniques that are used to add dopant to a wafer post-fabrication: empty space diffusion, inner lattice diffusion, and changing of places. All three of these methods involve the diffusion of target molecules into the wafer. There are three common ways to introduce dopants to a wafer: empty space diffusion, inner lattice diffusion, and changing of places.
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